In lithography the artist draws on a slab of smoothed limestone, or on a specially treated metal plate. The artist creates images by manipulating lithographic crayons and/or ink in many different ways.
The image is then fixed to the surface by chemically treating the stone to ensure that drawn areas attract ink, while unmarked areas repel it. Ink is rolled onto the stone/plate, paper is set in place, and the scraper bar of the lithographic press is pulled across the paper.
Lithography is called a ‘planographic’ process because the image is transferred from a flat surface (unlike relief which is printed from a raised surface, or intaglio which is printed from a recessed surface).